Research Methodology (PSS- 1300)
- Research – meaning, objective, scope and functions; method Vs methodology
- Approaches – Qualitative and quantitative, cross-sectional and longitudinal, nomothetic and idiographic; ethics in research.
- Scientific method- Models of thinking in science, the logic of scientific method, requisites of good scientific method.
- Research and theory- Role of theories in research; concept and theory; theory and hypothesis.
Unit-II: Identification of the Problem and Formulation of Hypothesis
- Problem - idea formation; idea analysis, selection of appropriate problems; conceptual interpretation, justification; formulation and statement of the problem.
- Hypotheses - meaning, characteristics, types, sources, functions; steps in testing hypotheses, rules of construction, testing of hypotheses.
Unit- III: Research Design
- Meaning, need and features of good design- objectivity, reliability, validity and generality.
- Typology- Exploratory, descriptive, diagnostic, historical and experimental.
Unit- IV: Descriptive Study Designs
- Surveys- sampling large
- Field studies- constructing plausible explanations
- Case studies- the intensive analysis of one
- Ex-post facto studies- looking back
- Correlational studies- finding the relationship
- Clinical studies- pre- post intervention designs
- Cause and effects
Unit-V: Experimental Designs
- Definition, purpose and characteristics of experimental designs
- Types - single subject designs, pre-post designs, two-group designs, multi group designs, factorial designs, mixed designs, quasi-experimental designs.
Unit- VI: Epidemiological Studies
- Prospective and retrospective studies: prevalence rate, incidence rate; specific and adjusted rates; life table techniques; case control study.
Unit-VII: Data collection
- Tools- Inquiry form, questionnaire, schedule, checklist, rating scale scorecard, opinionnaire, attitude scales.
- Methods- Observation, interview, surveys, tests, case studies, library method.
Unit- VIII: Tests and Test Standardization
- Tests- Objectives, uses, principles, steps of construction
- Types- Achievement tests, aptitude tests, intelligence tests, interest inventories, personality tests, sociometry, psychometrics
- Test standardization procedure- Objectivity, utility, reliability and validity of tests.
Unit- IX: Sampling
- Sample- Meaning, characteristics, types, advantages, disadvantages and limitations.
- Sampling methods- Complete enumeration, snow ball technique, random and non- random sample, simple random and systematic random, stratified random and cluster random, quota sampling.
Unit-X: Data interpretation and Reporting.
- Interpretation- Ways of interpretation, principles, research reports, steps in writing reports, evaluation of research reports, summary
- Meta analysis- Analyzing the analysis
- Program evaluation- Assessing the system.
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- Teacher: Dr. Sandhya Aravind C.A email@example.com
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