Research Methodology (PSS- 1300)

 Unit-1: Introduction

  • Research – meaning, objective, scope and functions; method Vs methodology
  • Approaches – Qualitative and quantitative, cross-sectional and longitudinal, nomothetic and idiographic; ethics in research.
  • Scientific method- Models of thinking in science, the logic of scientific method, requisites of good scientific method.
  • Research and theory- Role of theories in research; concept and theory; theory and hypothesis.           

Unit-II: Identification of the Problem and Formulation of Hypothesis

  • Problem - idea formation; idea analysis, selection of appropriate problems; conceptual interpretation, justification; formulation and statement of the problem.
  • Hypotheses - meaning, characteristics, types, sources, functions; steps in testing hypotheses, rules of construction, testing of hypotheses.

Unit- III: Research Design

  • Meaning, need and features of good design- objectivity, reliability, validity and generality.
  • Typology- Exploratory, descriptive, diagnostic, historical and experimental.

Unit- IV: Descriptive Study Designs

  • Surveys- sampling large
  • Field studies- constructing plausible explanations
  • Case studies- the intensive analysis of one
  • Ex-post facto studies- looking back
  • Correlational studies- finding the relationship
  • Clinical studies- pre- post intervention designs
  • Cause and effects

Unit-V: Experimental Designs

  • Definition, purpose and characteristics of experimental designs
  • Types - single subject designs, pre-post designs, two-group designs, multi group designs, factorial designs, mixed designs, quasi-experimental designs.

 Unit- VI: Epidemiological Studies

  • Prospective and retrospective studies: prevalence rate, incidence rate; specific and adjusted rates; life table techniques; case control study.

Unit-VII: Data collection

  • Tools- Inquiry form, questionnaire, schedule, checklist, rating scale scorecard, opinionnaire, attitude scales.
  • Methods- Observation, interview, surveys, tests, case studies, library method.

Unit- VIII: Tests and Test Standardization

  • Tests- Objectives, uses, principles, steps of construction
  • Types- Achievement tests, aptitude tests, intelligence tests, interest inventories, personality tests, sociometry, psychometrics
  • Test standardization procedure- Objectivity, utility, reliability and validity of tests.

Unit- IX: Sampling

  • Sample- Meaning, characteristics, types, advantages, disadvantages and limitations.
  • Sampling methods- Complete enumeration, snow ball technique, random and non- random sample, simple random and systematic random, stratified random and cluster random, quota sampling.

Unit-X: Data interpretation and Reporting.

  • Interpretation- Ways of interpretation, principles, research reports, steps in writing reports, evaluation of research reports, summary
  • Meta analysis- Analyzing the analysis
  • Program evaluation- Assessing the system.


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