CORE: PHSM 11116 COLONIAL APPARATUS AND TRAJECTORIES OF THE NATION STATE Credit:4

 Course Outcomes

CO 1:Understand the historiographical debates and discussions on Indian national movements

 CO 2:Analyse the colonial strategies adopted by East India Company and British Empire. 

CO 3:Evaluate the relationship between imperialism, colonialism and nationalism in modern India.

 CO 4: Understand the trajectories of communalism and significance of secularism in Indian politics.

 CO 5: Build expertise in recent Post-Colonial/ Post-Modern theories. 

CO 6: Formulate and identify a research problem and prepare a research design on the basis of contemporary historical studies on national movement.

 Module I Debates in Historiography-

 Europe’s India, Producing Histories for the Colonized; Administrative Histories; Imperialist Histories; Strands of Nationalist Thought and Histories Historiography of the National Movement: Nationalist historiography, Marxian historiography, Cambridge School, Subaltern Studies, Post-Colonial, New Cambridge School. 

Module II Conquest and Consolidation, Early Colonial Engagements;18th Century in Indian History; Imperial Structures; Policies and Ideologies; Nature of the state; The Company State; 1857 and the British Consolidation; Frontier and foreign policy; Knowledge and Governance; Surveying and Mapping the Empire; Education; Print and Early Public Sphere; The Missions of Empire, Christianity and the State, Western Science, Colonial Practice. 44 

Module III Indian Economy and Society in Transition-Agrarian Production and Changed Structures; Forests and frontiers; Revenue,Emergence of plantations; Commercialization and Indebtedness; Drain of Wealth and beyond; Famines; Indian and European Commerce, Finance,property and order Indian society and Culture; Age of Reform, Reforming Men and Women; Restructuring families; Categorizing castes; Rethinking Religion.

 Module IV Process of National Movement-Imperialism and Nationalism- theoretical perspectives; Nature of Early Resistance, unrest and uprising; Emerging Nationalisms, Indian National Congress; Moderate, Extremist and Subaltern Nationalism, Mahatma Gandhi and the Movement, Critique of Caste: Non-Brahmins and Untouchable Movements – Contending Visions. Gandhi and Ambedkar; Negotiations and Confrontations; Popular struggles in princely states; The Rough Road to Freedom and Partition, Creating Constitution for Independent India; towards a sovereign state 

Reference List

 Alam, M., The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India: Awadh and the Punjab, (OxfordUniversity Press, 1986). 

Alavi, Seema, The Sepoys and the Company: Tradition and Transition in Northern India, 1770- 1830, (Delhi:Oxford University Press, 1995). 

Alavi, Seema, (ed.), The Eighteenth Century in India (USA: OUP, 2002)

 Agarwal, Bina, A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)

 Agarwal, Arun, Environmentality: Technologies of Government and the Making of Subjects (USA: Duke University Press, 2005) 

Arnold, David, and Guha, Ramachandra, (eds.), Nature, Culture, Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995) 4

 Bates, Crispin, ‘Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: The Early Origins of Indian Anthropomentry’, in Peter Robb, ed., The Concept of Race in South Asia, (Delhi: Oxford,1995).

 Barnett, Richard, (ed.), Rethinking Early Modern in India (Delhi: Manohar, 2002)

 Bayly, C.A, Imperial Meridian: The British Empire in the World 1780-1830, Longman, 1989.

 Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar, From Plassey to Partition and After: A History of Modern India (New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2014) 

Bayly, C.A., Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770-1870 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1983)

 Bhattacharya, Neeladri, The Great Agrarian Conquest: The Colonial Reshaping of a Rural World (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2018) 

Brass, Paul, The Politics of India Since Independence (Delhi: Foundation Books, 1994).

 Brown, Judith, Gandhi and Civil Disobedience: The Mahatma in Indian Politics 1928- 34(Cambridge: CUP, 1977). ………………., Gandhi’s Rise to Power, Indian Politics 1915-22 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972). 

Chandra, Bipan, Communalism in Modern India (2ndedn.), (Delhi:Vikas, 1987). 

Chandra, Bipin, Rise and Growth of Economic Nationalism in India (Delhi: Har-Anand, 2010).

 ………………, Nationalism and Communalism in Modern India (Delhi:Orient Logman, 1981). 

Chakravarti, Uma, Rewriting History: The Life and Times of Pandita Ramabai (New Delhi: Kali for Women,1996) 

Cohn, Bernard, ‘Representing Authority in Victorian India’ in E.J.Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (eds.), The Invention of Tradition, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).

 ………………, Colonialism and its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India (Princeton:Princeton University Press, 1996) 

 Desai, A.R, Social Background of Indian Nationalism (MumbaI:Popular Prakasan, 1986). 

…………...,Peasant Struggles in India (Delhi: OUP, 1979).

 Deborah, Sutton, Other Landscapes: Colonialism and the Predicament of Authority in 19th Century South India (New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2009) 

Dube, Ishita Banerjee, A History of Modern India (Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2015) 

Edney, Mathew, Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of British in India, 1765- 1960(Delhi: Permanent Black, 2007) 

Gandhi, Mohandas K., Autobiography or the Story of my Experiments with Truth, (London: 1966, Ahmedabad: Navjivan, 1981).

 Gupta, Narayani, Delhi between Two Empires, (Delhi: OUP, 1998). 

Gupta, Parthasarathi and A. Deshpande (eds.) The British Raj and Its Indian Armed Forces, 1857-1939, (New Delhi: OUP, 2002).

 Guha, Ranjit, Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India (Delhi: OUP, 1983).

 …... (ed.), SubalternStudies VI: Writings on South Asian History and Society (Delhi: OUP, 1989) 

Guha, Ranjit and Gayatri. C.Spivak (eds.),Selected Subaltern Studies (Delhi: OUP, 1988). 

Gadgil, Madhav, and Guha, Ramachandra, This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1992)

 Guha, Ramachandra, The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in Himalayas, (new edn. Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2009) 

Hasan, Mushirul (ed.), India’s Partition: Process, Strategy and Mobilization (Delhi: OUP, 1998).

 Jalal, Ayesha, Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, The Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan(Delhi: Orient Longman, 1985). 

Jones, Kenneth, Social and Religious Reform Movement in Modern India (New Cambridge History, 1989). 

Joshi P.C (ed.), Rammohan Roy and the Process of Modernisation in India (Delhi, Vikas, 1975). 

Kennedy, P., The Rise and Fall of The Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000, (New York: Vintage Books, 1987). 

Krishnamurthi, J. (ed.), Woman in Colonial India: Essays on Survival. Work and the State (Delhi: OUP,1989) 

Malcolm, J., Political History of British India from 1784 to 1823, (New Delhi: Associated Publishing House, 1970). 

Mann, Michael, South Asia’s Modern History(London: Routledge, 2015) 

Metcalf, T.R., Ideologies of Raj: The New Cambridge History of India, III.4, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

 ……………...,The Aftermath of Revolt: India, 1875-1870, (New Delhi: Manohar, 1990). 

McLane, John.R, Indian Nationalism and the Early Congress (Princeton: Princeton University Press,1977) 

Philip, Kavitha, Civilizing Natures: Race, Resources, and Modernity in Colonial South India (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2003) 

Rangarajan, Mahesh, Nature and the Nation,(Delhi: Permanent Black, 2015)

 Rangarajan, Mahesh and Sivaramakrishnan, K., India’s Environmental History: From Ancient Time to the Colonial Period, Vol.1,(Delhi: Permanent Black, 2012) 

Singh, Chetan, Natural Premises: Ecology and Peasant Life in the Western Himalayas 1800-1950 (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998) 

Nanda. B.R, Mahatma Gandhi (Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1968) 

Nandy, Ashis, The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self under Colonialism (New Delhi: OUP, 2009) 

 Naoraji, Dadabhai, Poverty and Un-British Rule in India (London 1901, Delhi: Common Wealth, 1988).

Nehru, Jawaharlal, An Autobiography (London: 1936). 

O’Malley, L.S.S., Indian Civil Service, 1601-1930, (London: John Murray, 1934). 

Partha Chatterjee, A Possible India: Essays in Political Criticism (USA: Oxford, 1998). 

P. Lawson, The East India Company: A History, (London: Longman, 1993). 

Peers, D., India Under Colonial Rule 1700-1885, (Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans, 2006) 

Ramusack, Barbara N., The Indian Princes and Their States, (Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 2004).

 R. Barnett, Rethinking Early Modern India, (New Delhi: Manohar, 2002). 

Sarkar, Sumit, Modern India, 1885-1947 (Delhi: Macmillian, 1985). 

Sarkar, Sumit, Modern Times, India 1880s-1950s: Environment, Economy and Culture (Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2015) 

Siddiqi, Asiya (ed.),Trade and Finance in Colonial India 1750-1860, (Delhi: OUP, 1995). 

Sivaramakrishnan, K., Modern Forests: State Making and Environmental Change in Colonial Eastern India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999) 

Skaria, Ajay, Hybrid Histories: Forests, Frontiers and Wilderness Western India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999) 

Sundar, Nandini, Subalterns and Sovereigns: An Anthropological History of Bastar, 1854-1996 (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997) 

Stokes, Eric, Peasants and the Raj: Studies in Agrarian Society and Peasant Rebellion in Colonial India (Delhi: Vikas, 1978). 

Ward, J.M., Colonial Self Government: The British Experience 1759-1856 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976). 

Whitcombe, Elizabeth, Agrarian Conditions in Northern India: The United Province under British Rule, 1860-1900 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972) 

Zelliot, Eleanor, From Untouchable to Dalit: Essays on Ambedkar Movement (Delhi: Manohar, 1992).

Course Outcomes

  • Understand the overarching perspectives we employ while carrying out research. 
  • Understand that a theoretical question is also a question on the nature of historical knowledge.
  • Reflect on the knowledge that we produce 
  • Locate the thrusts that made it possible to create this knowledge in the place of many others. 
  •  Analyse the theoretical perspectives that are decisive with regard to a historian's choice of research topics, sources and research outcomes.
  • Assess the discipline and its social dimensions/ implications.


CORE: PHSM  11116      COLONIAL APPARATUS AND TRAJECTORIES OF THE NATION STATE
Credit:4 
Course Outcome                
CO 1:Understand the historiographical debates and discussions on Indian national movements.
CO 2:Analyse the colonial strategies adopted by East India Company and British Empire.
CO 3:Evaluate the relationship between imperialism, colonialism and nationalism in modern India.
CO 4: Understand the trajectories of communalism and significance of secularism in Indian politics.
CO 5: Build expertise in recent Post-Colonial/ Post-Moderntheories.
CO 6: Formulate and identify a research problem and prepare a research design on the basis of contemporary historical studies on national movement. 
Module I
Debates in Historiography- Europe’s India, Producing Histories for the Colonized; Administrative Histories; Imperialist Histories; Strands of Nationalist Thought and Histories
Historiography of the National Movement: Nationalist historiography, Marxian historiography, Cambridge School, Subaltern Studies, Post-Colonial, New Cambridge School.
Module II
Conquest and Consolidation, Early Colonial Engagements;18th Century in Indian History; Imperial Structures; Policies and Ideologies; Nature of the state; The Company State; 1857 and the British Consolidation; Frontier and foreign policy; Knowledge and Governance; Surveying and Mapping the Empire; Education; Print and Early Public Sphere; The Missions of Empire, Christianity and the State, Western Science, Colonial Practice.
  
44 
Module III
Indian Economy and Society in Transition-Agrarian Production and Changed Structures; Forests and frontiers; Revenue,Emergence of plantations; Commercialization and Indebtedness; Drain of Wealth and beyond; Famines; Indian and European Commerce, Finance,property and order Indian society and Culture; Age of Reform, Reforming Men and Women; Restructuring families; Categorizing castes; Rethinking Religion.
Module IV
Process of National Movement-Imperialism and Nationalism- theoretical perspectives; Nature of Early Resistance, unrest and uprising; Emerging Nationalisms, Indian National Congress; Moderate, Extremist and Subaltern Nationalism, Mahatma Gandhi and the Movement, Critique of Caste: Non-Brahmins and Untouchable Movements – Contending Visions. Gandhi and Ambedkar; Negotiations and Confrontations; Popular struggles in princely states; The Rough Road to Freedom and Partition, Creating Constitution for Independent India; towards a sovereign state  


Reference List Alam, M., The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India: Awadh and the Punjab, (OxfordUniversity Press, 1986).
Alavi, Seema, The Sepoys and the Company: Tradition and Transition in Northern India, 17701830, (Delhi:Oxford University Press, 1995).
Alavi, Seema, (ed.), The Eighteenth Century in India (USA: OUP, 2002)
Agarwal, Bina, A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)
Agarwal, Arun,Environmentality: Technologies of Government and the Making of Subjects (USA: Duke University Press, 2005)
Arnold, David, and Guha, Ramachandra, (eds.), Nature, Culture, Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995)
  
45 
Bates, Crispin, ‘Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: The Early Origins of Indian Anthropomentry’, in Peter Robb, ed., The Concept of Race in South Asia, (Delhi: Oxford,1995).
Barnett, Richard, (ed.), Rethinking Early Modern in India (Delhi: Manohar, 2002)
Bayly, C.A, Imperil Meridian: The British Empire in the World 1780-1830, Longman, 1989.
Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar, From Plassey to Partition and After: A History of Modern India (New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2014)
Bayly, C.A., Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770-1870 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1983)
Bhattacharya, Neeladri, The Great Agrarian Conquest: The Colonial Reshaping of a Rural World (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2018) 
Brass, Paul, The Politics of India Since Independence (Delhi: Foundation Books, 1994).
Brown, Judith, Gandhi and Civil Disobedience: The Mahatma in Indian Politics 192834(Cambridge: CUP, 1977).
………………., Gandhi’s Rise to Power, Indian Politics 1915-22 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972).
Chandra, Bipan, Communalism in Modern India (2ndedn.), (Delhi:Vikas, 1987).
Chandra, Bipin, Rise and Growth of Economic Nationalism in India (Delhi: Har-Anand, 2010).
………………, Nationalism and Communalism in Modern India (Delhi:Orient Logman, 1981).
Chakravarti, Uma, Rewriting History: The Life and Times of PanditaRamabai (New Delhi: Kali for Women,1996) 
Cohn, Bernard, ‘Representing Authority in Victorian India’ in E.J.Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (eds.), The Invention of  Tradition, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).
………………, Colonialism and its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India (Princeton:Princeton University Press, 1996)
  
46 
Desai, A.R, Social Background of Indian Nationalism (MumbaI:Popular Prakasan, 1986).
…………...,Peasant Struggles in India (Delhi: OUP, 1979).
Deborah, Sutton, Other Landscapes: Colonialism and the Predicament of Authority in 19th Century South India (New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2009) 
Dube, Ishita Banerjee, A History of Modern India (Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2015)
Edney, Mathew, Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of British in India, 17651960(Delhi: Permanent Black, 2007)
Gandhi, Mohandas K., Autobiography or the Story of my Experiments with Truth, (London: 1966, Ahmedabad:Navjivan, 1981).
Gupta, Narayani, Delhi between Two Empires, (Delhi: OUP, 1998).
Gupta, ParthaSaradhi and A. Despande (eds.) The British Raj and Its Indian Armed Forces, 1857-1939, (New Delhi: OUP, 2002).
Guha, Ranjit, Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India (Delhi: OUP, 1983).
…... (ed.), SubalternStudies VI: Writings on South Asian History and Society (Delhi: OUP, 1989)
Guha, Ranjit and Gayatri. C.Spivak (eds.),Selected Subaltern Studies (Delhi: OUP, 1988).
Gadgil, Madhav, and Guha, Ramachandra, This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1992)
Guha, Ramachandra, The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in Himalayas, (new edn. Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2009) 
Hasan, Mushirul (ed.), India’s Partition: Process, Strategy and Mobilization (Delhi: OUP, 1998).
Jalal, Ayesha, Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, The Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan(Delhi: Orient Longman, 1985).
  
47 
Jones, Kenneth, Social and Religious Reform Movement in Modern India (New Cambridge History, 1989).
Joshi P.C (ed.), Rammohan Roy and the Process of Modernasation in India (Delhi, Vikas, 1975).
Kennady, P., The Rise and Fall of The Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from1500 to 2000, (New York: Vintage Books, 1987).
Krishnamurthi, J. (ed.), Woman in Colonial India: Essays on Survival. Work and the State (Delhi: OUP,1989)
Malcolm, J., Political History of British India from 1784 to 1823, (New Delhi: Associated Publishing House, 1970).
Mann, Mchael, South Asia’s Modern History(London: Routledge, 2015)
Metcalf, T.R., Ideologies of Raj: The New Cambridge History of India, III.4, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
……………...,The Aftermath of Revolt: India, 1875-1870, (New Delhi:Manohar, 1990).
McLane, John.R, Indian Nationalism and the Early Congress (Princeton: PrincetonUniversity Press,1977)
Philip, Kavitha, Civilizing Natures: Race, Resources, and Modernity in Colonial South India (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2003)
Rangarajan, Mahesh, Nature and the Nation,(Delhi: Permanent Black, 2015)
Rangarajan, Mahesh and Sivaramakrishnan, K., India’s Environmental History: From Ancient Time to the Colonial Period, Vol.1,(Delhi: Permanent Black, 2012)
Sing, Chetan, Natural Premises: Ecology and Peasant Life in the Western Himalayas 1800-1950 (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998)
Nanda. B.R, Mahatma Gandhi (Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1968)
Nandy, Ashis, The Intimate Enemy: Loss andRecovery of Self under Colonialism (New Delhi: OUP, 2009)  
  
48 
Naoraji, Dadabhai, Poverty and Un-British Rule in India (London 1901, Delhi: Common Wealth, 1988).
Nehru, Jawaharlal, An Autobiography (London: 1936).
O’Malley, L.S.S., Indian Civil Service, 1601-1930, (London: John Murray, 1934).
Partha Chatterjee, A Possible India: Essays in Political Criticism (USA: Oxford, 1998).
P. Lawson, The East India Company: A History, (London: Longman, 1993).
Peers, D., India Under Colonial Rule 1700-1885, (Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans, 2006)
Ramusack, Barbara N., The Indian Princes and Their States, (Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 2004).
R. Barnett, Rethinking Early Modern India, (New Delhi: Manohar, 2002).
Sarkar, Sumit, Modern India, 1885-1947 (Delhi:Macmillian, 1985).
Sarkar, Sumit, Modern Times, India 1880s-1950s: Environment, Economy and Culture (Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2015)
Siddiqi, Asiya (ed.),Trade and Finance in Colonial India 1750-1860, (Delhi: OUP, 1995).
Sivaramakrishnan, K., Modern Forests: Statemaking and Environmental Change in Colonial Eastern India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999)
Skaria, Ajay, Hybrid Histories: Forests, Frontiers and Wilderness Western India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999)
Sundar, Nandini, Subalterns and Sovereigns: An Anthropological History of Bastar, 1854-1996 (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997)
Stokes, Eric, Peasants and the Raj: Studies in Agrarian Society and Peasant Rebellion in Colonial India (Delhi: Vikas, 1978).
  
49 
Ward, J.M., Colonial Self Government: The British Experience 1759-1856 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976).
Whitcombe, Elizabeth, Agrarian Conditions in Northern India: The United Province under British Rule, 1860-1900 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972)
Zelliot, Eleanor, From Untouchable to Dalit: Essays on AmbedkarMovement (Delhi:Manohar, 1992).

This is to equip students for research in history

CORE PHSS 11118 SELECT THEMES IN WORLD HISTORY Course Outcome Credit:4 CO1 Understand the formation of state and structure in the ancient world. CO2 Analyze feudal modes of production and its application in world context. CO3 Remember the economic and religious engagements that made the middle ages. CO4 Evaluate the transition from feudalism to capitalism. CO5 Determine the anti imperialist and anti fascist movement and its consequences CO6 Describe the post colonial world movement in total 56 Module I State and Structures in the ancient world Hunter gatherer to bands and tribes towards chiefdom polity Urbanization and the growth of Agrarian society Writings in ancient civilization with special reference to Epic of Gilgamesh Megalithic relics to architectural marvels of ancient world Module II Feudal modes of economy, polity, and society Patterns of world history Transition – The rise of absolute monarchs Reflection on disease and death in the middle ages leading to changes Module III Encounters and interactions: Economic and religious engagements in the Middle Ages The guilds and mercantile economy – The rise of Islam and Crusades The diffusion of religion and cultural practices The coming of renaissance and Reformation Module IV Towards Capitalism Maritime Revolution/Industrial revolution Democratic revolution and Evolution of war Histories of reception, appropriation and encounters – The migration of technologies and object 57 Module V Anti - Imperialist and Anti - Fascist Movements- the World Wars Conflicting economic and political ideologies War and its impact on world – Changing lives and gender expectations Decolonization and neo liberal World order Reference List Kuhn, Thomas. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 3rded. ChicagoUniversityPress: Chicago &London, 1996 Barry, Theodore. De Sources of Indian Tradition, Motilal Benarsidass:New Delhi Carr, E.H. The twenty year crisis 1919-1938, Macmillan, 1946 Carr. E.H. The Russian Revolution. 1919-22 Carr, E.H. The Russian Revolution from Lenin to Stalin Crinnion,V. The Great War, Macmillan, 1980 Hobsbawn, Eric J. The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914-1991 Hobsbawn, Eric. J. Age of Revolution Hobsbawn, Eric. J. Industry and Empire Taylor, A.J.P. The First /world War, Penguin, 1963 D, Heather. The Cold War, Oxford, 1970 H, Higgins. The Cold War, Heinmann, 1984 Durant, Will. Story of civilization Vol I-IV. Megarry, Tim. Societies in prehistory Roberts, J.M. History of the world Beck, Roger, Linda Black and Larry Krieger. Modern World History: Patterns of Interactions, Boston: MA: McDougal Littell, 1999 Golden, Peter B. Central Asia in World History, OUP, 2011 58 Pomper, Philip, Richard H. Elphick and Richard T. Vann. Edt. World History: Ideologies, Structures and Identities. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998 Griffin, Roger. The Nature of Fascism. New York: St, Martin’a Press, 1991 Edwards, Catherine. Roman Presence: Receptions of Rome in European Culture, 1789-1945, Cambridge University press, 1998 Grayzel, Susan R. Changing lives: Gender expectations and roles during and after World War One, University of Mississippi: USA, 2012 (British Library Sources) Gooch, G.P. History and Historians of 19th Century Gershoy, Leo. French Revolution and Napoleon Lefebare, George. Coming of the French Revolution Lefebare, George. French Revolution, Vol. 2 Carlyle, Thomas, The French Revolution Hilton, Rodney, The transition from Feudalism to capitalism Dobb, Maurice. Studies in Capitalism Palmer, R.R. The History of the Modern World Hsu, Immanual C. Y. The Rise of Modern China, 2 Vols. Berlin, I. Karl Marx Cobban, Alfred. Aspects of French Revolution Gottschalk, R.Louis. The Era of French Revolution