The course on Science, Technology and Society is a form of a contemporary course that finds its relevance in the Post Modern Society. It explores the multifaceted effects that are a result of the scientific revolution and technological advancement over human civilisation. Thus this course enables the 4th Semester student in MA Sociology programme to  understand their post- modern social reality in a more relevant way.

The course aims to provide an overall understanding about the origin of the Sociological Tradition. It comprises of discussions on  Classical Sociological Tradition through the works of Durkheim, Marx and Weber. Thus it provides the basic theoretical orientation to the first semester students in  M A Sociology Programme.


4 credits 

Course Outcomes (COs):

 1. Understand the historical roots and emergence of sociology.

 2. Understand the contributions of classical thinkers to generate interest in the discipline.

 3. Enable understanding of classical theorists through reading their original texts. 

4. Exhibit oral and written communication skills in disseminating sociological knowledge based on original works of classical thinkers. 

 Module 1: Historical Emergence of Sociology

 1.1. Intellectual Context - Renaissance to Enlightenment to Social Philosophy of Saint Simon 1.2. Social, Political and Economic Context – Revolutions

1.3. Sociology as a science – Comte, and Spencer 

Module 2: Emile Durkheim

 2.1 Emergence of Sociology as an academic discipline 

2.2 Views on Sociological Method – Rules of Sociological Methods 

2.3 Durkheim as Functionalist – The Division of Labour & Elementary Forms of Religious Life

 2.4 Empirical approach - Theory of Suicide 

Module 3: Karl Marx

 3.1 Conception of Society - Dialectical and Historical Materialism

 3.2 Social structure & Economic determinism; Formation of Social Classes

 3.3 Capitalism, Commodity production, Labour theory of value, alienation 3.4 Theory of social change – Ideology, Class Consciousness, Class Struggle 

Module 4: Max Weber 

4.1 Methodological Individualism – Sociology as an interpretative Science, Social Action, Ideal Type

4.2 Value Neutrality and Causality 

4.3 Rationality and Modernity – Rationalization 

4.4 Theory of Power and Authority - Bureaucracy 

4.5 Views on World Religions and Economy-Thesis on Protestant Ethic 

4.6 Theory of stratification


PSOM 11321                     ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIOLOGY                4 credits

Course Outcomes: (COs)

  1. Understand the reciprocal relationships between environment and society.

  2. Gain knowledge about the different ideologies and perspectives of environmental sociology.

  3. Understand the relationship between gender and environment.

  4. Gain awareness about personal responsibilities and roles in environmental problems.

  5. Analyse the interplay between environment, development, capitalism and social justice.

  6. Understand Environmental Sociology from one’s own experience

MODULE 1: Introduction to Environmental Sociology

1.1. Nature and Society- Human being and Nature, Environment in Culture and Religion
1.2. Ecological Concern and Economic Thought - Patterns of Industrialisation, Inequitable Growth, Capitalism and Implications on Environment - Eco-crisis, Human Progress versus

Ecological Collapse, Environmental problems from the Local to the Global
1.3. Social Theory in the Environmental Debate - Non Western Views of the Environment - The

Judeo-Christian Legacy – Pre-nineteenth century social readings
1.4. The Enlightenment, Environment and Social Theory - 19th-21st century social theory -Development of Environmental Sociology

MODULE 2: Major Environmental Ideologies

2.1.Environmental Visions - Thoreau, Rachel Carson, Gandhiji 2.2.Anthropocentrism, Anthropocene and Deep Ecology 2.3.Social Ecology and Environmental Sociology: Debates 2.4.Green dilemmas: Consumerism and Environmentalism

MODULE 3: Gender and Environment

3.1. Evolution of Masculinist Forestry – forest policies and management 3.2. Ecology and culture – Gendered hierarchies
3.3. Gender and Environment Debate – Ecofeminism
3.4. Impact of environmental degradation – a gender perspective

MODULE 4: Politics of Environment

4.1.Struggles over Resources - Globalization and Third World countries - Environmental policies - Hazardous Industries, Mining and Agriculture – Impact on Indigenous Communities

4.2.Human Wildlife Conflict - Anthropogenic Stress on Ecosystem
4.3.Environmental Movements - Development Induced Conflicts, Environmental Injustice – case studies

4.4.Sustainable Development and its Critique


PSOS 11309                                     GENDER AND SOCIETY                             4 credits 

Course Outcomes (COs)

  1. Understanding gender as a social construct

  2. Familiarity with theoretical perspectives on gender

  3. Insight about the ways in which gender hierarchies are reinforced

  4. Critical understanding of the role of gender in one’s own life and actions

  5. Engagement with the gendered nature of various institutions and practices in society

Module 1: Social Construction of Gender

1.1 Gender as a Social Construct -: Sex/Gender, Gender identity, Gender Stereotypes, Gender Discrimination, Gendered division of labour

1.2 Heteronormativity, Gender continuum and LGBTIQ 1.3 Social institutions and Gender reproduction
1.4 Patriarchy as an ideology and practice

Module 2: Development of Perspectives on Gender

2.1 Different waves of Feminism, Feminist Perspectives - Liberal, Radical, Socialist, Eco-feminism and Postmodern.

2.2 The Equality/Difference debate; public vs. private, women’s studies/gender studies. 2.3 Queer politics, Queer theory.
2.4 Theories of masculinity.

Module 3: Politics of Gender in India

3.1 Intersectionality of gender and other identities in the India context
3.2 Gender and economy:, property relations, gender wage-gap, unpaid labour and glass ceilings 3.3 Representations of Gender: Objectification and stereotyping
3.4 Power and gendered violence: women as repositories of culture
3.5 Issues of sexual minorities in India

Module 4: Gender relations in Kerala Society

4.1 The making of the ideal Malayalee Woman
4.2 Perceptions on sexuality and morality in Kerala 4.3 Gender mainstreaming in Kerala
4.4 Re-examining women empowerment in Kerala

PSOS 11330 Sociology of Marriage and Family is an elective course offered to the fourth semester students of M.A.Sociology.



Course Outcomes (COs) 


1.  Understand the philosophical background, characteristics, and types of social research   Know the paradigms of social research

 2. Formulate problems and devise research questions, assess the significance of how questions  are  theorised

 3. Gain familiarity with data sources (international, National and Regional) and understand  how to use them to research a particular question 

4. Conduct theory-driven, critical and real-world research 5. Understand the ways of linking sociological knowledge/literature in the formulation of the a research problem. 

  Module 1:     Knowledge Production in Social Sciences  

1.1.  Historical roots: Enlightenment, reason and science. Philosophy of social sciences: Ontology,           epistemology and hermeneutics. Issues in the theory of epistemology: Forms and types of  knowledge, validation of knowledge. Cartesian philosophy, structure of scientific  revolution (Kuhn). 

1.2.  Positivism and its critique: Contributions of Comte, Durkheim and Popper to positivism;  Critique of  positivism: Feyerabend and Giddens 

1.3.  Paradigms of research: positivist, Constructivist/interpretive, critical and feminist 


Essential Reading: Martin Hollis. 2002. The Philosophy of Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  

Bryman Alan. 2008. Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Amin Samir. et al. 2009. Eurocentrism. NYU Press. 

Ward Steven C. 2012. Neoliberalism and the Global Restructuring of Knowledge and Education. Routledge. 


Module 2:    Complexities of Social Reality 

2.1  Nature of social reality, Binaries, Reflexivity, Theory-Research Duality, Sociological  imagination, need for interdisciplinary approach.   

2.2  Objectivity, Subjectivity and value debate. 

2.3  Politics of knowledge production: Corporatization of knowledge, Eurocentrism. 

2.4  Research Ethics: the concept, need, and significance. 

  Essential Reading: 

Mills C. Wright. 1966. The Sociological Imagination. London: Oxford University Press. 

Scott Greer. 1989. The Logic of Social Inquiry. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.   

Module 3:  Logic of Inquiry 

3.1  Inductive and Deductive approach 

3.2  Scientific method, Distinction between Methods and Methodology

 3.3  Criteria of research: Validity, reliability and representativeness 3.4  Critique of method and methodology. 

Essential Reading: 

Babbie Earl. 2004. The Practice of Social Research. New York: 

Thomson and Wadsworth. Hammersley Martyn. 2011. Methodology: Who Needs? New Delhi: Sage. 

David and Sutton. 2011. Social Research: An Introduction. New Delhi: Sage.   

Module 4:  Prelude to Social Research 

4.1  Formulation of research problem-Steps- Selection of a domain or branch of research and detailed         Literature survey, Identification of area, Recognizing topic, Formulation of research problem  

4.2  Review of related literature – sources, methods, significance

 4.3  Research questions, Research objectives, and Hypotheses: Scope & Significance

 4.4  Conceptual and Theoretical framework 

4.5  Research Design: case study, experimental, longitudinal, cross sectional and comparative. 4.6  Quantitative and qualitative methods as Research Strategies   

Essential Reading: Punch Keith F. 2003. Survey Research - The Basics. London: Sage. 

Creswell  John. 2009. Research Design. New Delhi: Sage. 

Bryman Alan. 2008. Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.   

Suggested Readings:  Arvind Kumar. 2003. Research Methodology in Social Research. New Delhi: Sarup  and Sons.  

Bailey Kenneth D. 1982. Methods in Social Research. New York: Macmillan.  

Carol Grbich. 2000. New Approaches in Social Research.  New Delhi: Sage.  

Garner Mark, Wagner Claire & Kawulich Barbara (eds). 2009. Teaching Research  Methods in Social Sciences. London: Ashgate Publishing.  

Kerry E. Howell. 2013. The Philosophy of Methodology. New Delhi: Sage.  

Malcolm William. 2003. Making Sense of Social Research. New Delhi: Sage.  Ron Matson. 2005. The Spirit of Sociology. New Delhi: Pearson Education. 

Module 1: Understanding Qualitative Research

1.1. Philosophical approaches to qualitative research- Post-positivism, social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, critical theory, feminist theory, queer theory

1.2. Nature and scope: Major Preoccupations in Qualitative Research
1.3. Concept of Site, Field and researcher in qualitative research- changing paradigms

1.4. Field research in India- History, multidimensionality and scope of qualitative research

Module 2: Techniques in Qualitative Research

2.1. Literature review- Problematization- Theoretical/Conceptual framework

2.2 Methods of qualitative research- Observation, Case study, Content analysis, Narrative inquiry, Life cycle, Genealogy, Focus Group Discussion, Oral history, Discourse method, Folklore, Action Research, PRA and PLA

2.2. Doing qualitative Research-Conducting Interview and Doing Ethnography

2.3. Qualitative Data Analysis: Thematic and narrative analysis, analytic induction, Coding, Analytic Memos, Use of qualitative data analysis software.

Module 3:Trends in qualitative research

3.1. Advances in qualitative research: Discourse analysis, Conversation analysis, Content analysis deconstruction, Grounded Theory method

3.2. Complementarities of the various research methods: Triangulation and mixed research

3.3 Continuity and interdependence between quantitative and qualitative research. 

3.4. Use of computers in data analysis

3.5. Representations, Presentations and writing report

Module 4: Activity-Tools, Fieldwork and analysis

4.1 Field study and report presentation